Gum disease is a type of gingivitis that is usually caused by a bacterial infection. If gum disease is not treated in time, it can lead to a more serious infection called periodontitis. Gum disease and periodontitis are the main causes of tooth loss in adults.

Causes of gum disease: Your gums are usually attached to your teeth at points lower and deeper than the edges of the gums we see on the surface. This condition of the gums and teeth creates a space between them. Food particles may get trapped inside this space, causing gum infection or gum disease.

Dental plaque is a thin layer of plaque made up of bacteria. This layer forms continuously on the surface of your teeth. As plaque expands and thickens, it becomes a harder layer of tooth mass called tartar. When plaque forms in the lower part of the gum line, it can cause an infection in this part.

If gum disease is not diagnosed and treated early, it can cause the gums to separate from the teeth. In this case, the soft tissues around the tooth and the bone that supports the tooth are also damaged. As a result, the tooth may become loose and unstable. If the infection progresses further than this, your teeth may eventually disappear or you may need to have your teeth extracted by a dentist.

Risk factors that can cause gum disease include:

Smoking or chewing tobacco


Taking certain medications (such as birth control pills, oral steroids, antiepileptic drugs, calcium channel blockers, and medications used for chemotherapy)

Crooked and irregular teeth

Prostheses (dentures) and night guards (mouth guards) that are not well placed.

Fracture or cracking of tooth filling


Genetic factors

Immune system disorders (such as people living with AIDS or HIV)

Signs and symptoms of gum disease: Many people do not know they have gum disease. A person may have gum disease without any obvious symptoms. However, the following are the most important symptoms of gum disease.

Redness, tenderness, and swelling of the gums

Bleeding gums while brushing or flossing

Decomposition of the gums or its separation from the teeth

Loosening of teeth

Changes in the way teeth are stacked when biting or chewing food (dental malformation)

Formation of plaque or pus between the teeth and gums

Toothache when chewing food

Sensitivity and vulnerability of teeth

Change the way dentures fit inside your mouth so that they no longer fit in your mouth.

Bad breath that does not go away after brushing your teeth.

Diagnoses of Gum Disease: During the examination, the condition of your gums is checked using a small drawing line. This test is done to diagnose any possible infection at the gum site. The size of the envelopes around your teeth is also measured in this way. The usual depth of the envelopes is between 1 and 3 mm. Your dentist may also order an x-ray of your teeth to check for possible bone damage.

Talk to your dentist about the risk factors for gum disease and the symptoms of these diseases. This will help you to better diagnose yourself if you have gum disease. If the tests show that you have gum disease, your dentist may refer you to a periodontist. A periodontist is a dentist who specializes in treating gum disease.

Treatment of gum disease: To treat periodontitis, it is necessary to observe good oral hygiene. You should also quit smoking and control your diabetes. Other treatments for gum disease include deep cleaning and scaling of teeth, the use of antibiotics, and surgery.

There are several methods that can be used to deep clean teeth without surgery. All of these methods prevent periodontitis by removing plaque and tartar.

Scaling removes tartar from the upper and lower parts of the gum line.

Deep scaling removes hard, rough stains on the tooth and removes infected parts of the tooth.

A laser that removes tartar stains and is associated with less pain and bleeding compared to scaling and scaling.


There are several medications that can be used to treat gum disease:

Antibiotic mouthwash that contains chlorhexidine and can be used to disinfect the mouth.

Antibiotic microspheres made of minocycline can be placed in sachets after scaling and scaling.


If none of the non-surgical treatments for your gum infection work, your dentist may recommend surgery. There are several different surgeries to treat gingivitis, including gingivectomy, flap surgery, and even tooth extraction.